The Nar­ra­tives Con­cern­ing The Mar­riage of Zaynab To The Prophet (P)

All praise be to God Almighty and peace and bless­ings be upon His Messenger.

Amma ba’­du,

It was by Allah’s Will that Zayd ibn Haritha divorced his wife when it was no longer pos­si­ble for them to live togeth­er. At the same time, it is also a part of human nature to find dif­fi­cul­ty to aban­don what one has been brought up to believe in, i.e. adop­tion. Adop­tion is not a social rule that could be con­quered eas­i­ly nor could its effects upon soci­ety quick­ly per­ish. One of the most impor­tant effects pro­duced by adop­tion upon soci­ety was that the fos­ter father was not enti­tled to mar­ry his fos­ter child’s for­mer wife. When Islam arrived, it banned adop­tion and with it its impact upon social norms. And for this mis­sion, Allah had cho­sen the Prophet Muham­mad(P) and He ordered him to mar­ry Zaynab bint Jahsh(R) after her divorce from his for­mer fos­ter son, Zayd.

Muham­mad’s(P) mar­riage to Zaynab had sent the unbe­liev­ers and hyp­ocrites to crit­i­cise this mar­riage, for they say : Muham­mad mar­ried his fos­ter-son’s for­mer wife out of lust”! So did the Ori­en­tal­ists of the last cen­tu­ry, the most noto­ri­ous of them being William Muir and D.S. Mar­goli­uth. They have tak­en advan­tage of this mar­riage by accus­ing the Prophet Muham­mad(P) of con­ve­nient­ly” using the Qur’an to legit­imize this mar­riage and sub­se­quent­ly ques­tioned his Prophethood.

Our pur­pose now is to chal­lenge these false accu­sa­tions. And as this is a sen­si­tive and seri­ous issue, since it direct­ly con­cerns the most hon­or­able of Allah’s crea­tures, we will view the nar­ra­tions of this sto­ry that these Ori­en­tal­ists have built their case upon. I will also point out the crit­i­cism that was direct­ed to some parts of the nar­ra­tion chain, and to the nar­ra­tion itself by respectable Islam­ic scholars.

Cir­cum­stances of the Divorce

Behold ! Thou didst say to one who had received the grades of Allah and thy favour : Retain thou (in wed­lock) thy wife, and fear Allah.” But thou didst hide in thy heart that which Allah was about to make man­i­fest : thou didst fear the peo­ple, but it is more fit­ting that thou shouldst. Fear Allah. Then when Zayd had dis­solved (his mar­riage) with her we join her in mar­riage to thee : in order that (in the future) there may be no dif­fi­cul­ty to the believ­ers in (the mat­ter of) mar­riage with the wives of their adopt­ed sons, when the lat­ter have dis­solved (their mar­riage) with them. And Allah’s com­mand must be ful­filled.” (Holy Qur’an, 33:37)

The main rea­son behind the divorce of Zayd and Zaynab was the prob­lems that arouse through­out their mar­riage. There­fore, Zayd divorced her by his own will though the Prophet(P) pro­hib­it­ed him from doing so. At the same time, the Prophet(P) knew what was going to hap­pen, and that the divorce was to be, but he con­cealed it from peo­ple fear­ing that they might say : He mar­ried the for­mer wife of who was called to him as a son.1

The sum of every­thing that reached us regard­ing this divorce — which has been used to claim that there was anoth­er motive behind this divorce — is that Muham­mad(P) hap­pened to see Zaynab by acci­dent, which lead her love to fall into his heart”. And as he was leav­ing he made a remark that indi­cat­ed” his admi­ra­tion for her. There­fore, when Zayd heard that, he was deter­mined to divorce Zaynab and sac­ri­fice his wife for the Prophet’s(P) desire and pas­sion. It is also men­tioned that Zayd con­sult­ed Muham­mad(P) in this mat­ter, and that the Prophet(P) advised him not to — though he secret­ly want­ed this divorce to befall Zayn?in order to mar­ry her after­wards. Above all, the Prophet(P) admit­ted that, and Allah even scold­ed him for try­ing to hide what he knew was to happen.

Despite the ugli­ness and vicious­ness of these nar­ra­tions and despite this under­stand­ing of the verse that men­tioned this inci­dent, some of our hon­or­able schol­ars have tak­en by these nar­ra­tions, such as :

  • Ibn Jarir in his book Jami-ul-Bayan (22÷12)
  • Ar-Razi in his book (13÷184)
  • Ibn Al-Qayy­im in his book Al-Jawab Al-Kafi (p. 247)
  • Az-Zamakhshari (3÷262)

The best excuse we might find for these schol­ars and their fol­low­ers is that they have con­sid­ered it a symp­tom of human nature, like any oth­er sign of anger or hap­pi­ness. Yet, they have not real­ized the ugli­ness of such nar­ra­tions being ascribed to the Prophet(P) nor have they exam­ined the chain of these nar­ra­tions care­ful­ly. There­fore, we ask Allah to for­give them.

Crit­i­cism of The Chain of Narrations

We begin by crit­i­cal­ly ana­lyz­ing the reports involved via its isnad (chain of nar­ra­tion), as follows :

First nar­ra­tion :

It was men­tioned by Ibn Saad in his Tabaqat (8÷101), and also Ibn Jarir in his Tarikh (3÷161). They said :

Muham­mad Ibn Umar said : Abdul­lah ibn Amr Al-Asla­mi said : Muham­mad Ibn Yahya Ibn Hab­ban said : the Prophet(P) came to Zayd Ibn Haritha?s house ask­ing for him — when Zayd was called Muham­mad’s son. When the Prophet(P) want­ed him he asked : where is Zayd ? Then he went seek­ing him at his house. But he did­n’t find him at home, accord­ing­ly, Zaynab came out to receive him, wear­ing her night­gown. The Prophet(P) turned his face, and she said : He isn’t here O Prophet of Allah, but I beg of you to come in. but the Prophet(P) refused to. She came out in her night­gown for she hur­ried when she was told that the Prophet(P) was at the door. She fell into the Prophet’s heart, then he left mur­mur­ing incom­pre­hen­si­ble words, except for : Grace be to Him Who directs the heart. When Zayd came home, Zaynab told him that the Prophet(P) had been at their house. Zayd asked her : Did you not tell him to come in?! Zaynab said : I have but he refused. Zayd asked : did he not say any­thing ? Zaynab said : he left mur­mur­ing some­thing I couldn?t under­stand, but I heard him say Grace be to Him Who directs the heart?. After­wards, Zayd went to the Prophet(P) and said : O Prophet of Allah, I have been told that you have been to my house, and that you have refused to come in. if it had been that you like Zaynab, I shall leave her for your sake. But the Prophet(P) said : Hold on to you wife. But Zayd could­n’t live on with Zaynab from that day. He would come to the Prophet(P) and ask him again, but the Prophet(P) would say : Hold on to your wife. And Zayd asked him again, and the Prophet(P) would still say : Hold on to your wife. But Zayd divorced Zaynab and her peri­od was over. Mean­while, the Prophet(P) was talk­ing to ?Aisha when all of the sud­den he was addressed by the Holy Spir­it. He was relieved, and said smil­ing : who shall go to Zaynab and tell her that Allah has make her my wife ? Then he recit­ed the verse Behold ! Thou didst say to one who had received the grades of Allah and thy favour…” to the end of it.

The first flaw regard­ing this nar­ra­tion is that it is mur­sal (i.e., two reporters are miss­ing), because Muham­mad ibn Yahya ibn Haban was not a Suc­ces­sor, he nar­rat­ed from the Com­pan­ions and the Suc­ces­sors such as Umar Ibn Sal­im and Al-A’raj, etc. He died 121 A.H. when he was 74 years old, so he did not wit­ness the inci­dent, nor had he men­tioned who had he tak­en the nar­ra­tion from. [2]

The sec­ond flaw is that Abdul­lah ibn Amr Al-Asla­mi is agreed upon his weak­ness (in nar­ra­tion). More­over, Al-Bukh ? said about him : his nar­ra­tion is to be ignored”. And Abu Hatim said : aban­doned”. [3]

The third flaw is that Muham­md ibn Umar is Al-Waqi­di, a sto­ry­teller who has many nar­ra­tions, but they are dropped from con­sid­er­a­tion. Fur­ther­more, some schol­ars accused him of lying and fab­ri­cat­ing hadith. [4]

Sec­ond narration : 

It is men­tioned in Ibn Jarir’s Tafsir (22÷13), he said :

Yunis told me : Ibn Wahab said : Ibn Zayd said : The Prophet(P) wed­ded Zayd bin Haritha to his cousin Zaynab bint Jahsh. On the day the Prophet (pbuh) went out in search of him (Zayd), the door of his house was but a piece of fab­ric, there­fore the wind blew it open and revealed Zaynab (with her sleeves up). And she fell into the Prophet’s(P) heart, and since then she hat­ed the oth­er (Zayd). Then Zayd came to the Prophet(P) and said : O Prophet of Allah, I want to leave my wife. He said : Why ? Do you have any sus­pi­cion about her ? He answered : No ! by Allah I have no sus­pi­cion about her and I have seen but good­ness from her. Then the Prophet(P) said : Hold on to your wife, and fear Allah in her. For that is what Allah said : Behold ! Thou didst say to one who had received the grades of Allah and thy favour : Retain thou (in wed­lock) thy wife, and fear Allah.’ But thou didst hide in thy heart that which Allah was about to make man­i­fest” i.e., hide in thy heart that if you leave her I will mar­ry her. 

First flaw :

It is mu’dil (i.e., more than two reporters are miss­ing), for ibn Zayd (who is Abdur-Rah­man ibn Zayd ibn Aslam), is nei­ther a Com­pan­ion nor a Suc­ces­sor, and accord­ing­ly two or more nar­ra­tors are absent.

Sec­ond flaw :

Abdur-Rahaman Ibn Zayd Ibn Aslam is weak by the agree­ment of Hadith schol­ars, and some went as far as to say that his nar­ra­tions are to be aban­doned. Al-Bukhari and Abu Hatim said :

Ali Ibn Al-Madi­ni con­sid­ered him very weak. It is report­ed that Ash-Shaf?i said : Abdur-Rah­man Ibn Zayd Ibn Aslam was asked, Did your father told you on author­i­ty of your grand­fa­ther that Allah’s Mes­sen­ger (pbuh) said : Nuh’s Ark cir­cum­am­bu­lat­ed the (Sacred) House and prayed behind the Maqam two Rak’aas?” he answered, Yes”. That is why when an inter­rupt­ed Hadith was nar­rat­ed to Malik, he said : Go to Abdur-Rah­man Ibn Zayd to tell you on author­i­ty of his father about Nuh. State­ments of Imams regard­ing his weak­ness are so many. He was a good man deep in the soul, but he was so much involved into pray­ing and wor­ship that he could not mem­o­rize Hadith, so he was con­sid­ered weak. [5]

Some tafsir is relat­ed from him, if it is of his own opin­ion in under­stand­ing the Qur’an, it is eval­u­at­ed. If it relat­ed on author­i­ty of oth­ers, it is unac­cept­able, let alone being with­out isnad !

Third nar­ra­tion :

It is men­tioned in Ahmad’s Mus­nad (3÷149150), he said :

Mu?mil ibn Ismail told us : Ham­mad ibn Zayd said : Anas said : The Prophet (pbuh) came to Zayd bin Haritha’s house, and saw his wife Zaynab. He might have entered their house (I am not sure whether it is Hammad?s com­ment or orig­i­nal­ly in the Hadith). Then Zayd came to com­plain to the Prophet (pbuh) about her, but the Prophet (pbuh) said : Hold on to your wife and fear Allah, then the verse and fear Allah.” But thou didst hide in thy heart that which Allah was about to make man­i­fest ? was revealed till we join her in mar­riage to thee”, i.e., Zaynab.

Some of the schol­ars strength­ened Mu’­mail’s nar­ra­tions, but the major­i­ty agreed that he is weak and nar­rates denounced reports. Ya?qoub Ibn Sufyan said :

His nar­ra­tions are not sim­i­lar to his col­leagues’ and schol­ars should revise his nar­ra­tions for he nar­rates denounced reports on author­i­ty of trust­wor­thy nar­ra­tors, which is yet even worse, for if he had nar­rat­ed denounced reports on author­i­ty of weak nar­ra­tors he might have had an excuse.

Muham­mad ibn Nasr Al-Mar­wazi said about Mu?mail :

If he was the only nar­ra­tor of some nar­ra­tion, this nar­ra­tion should be delin­eat­ed and thor­ough­ly exam­ined, for he lacked strong mem­o­ry and fre­quent­ly made mis­takes. [6]

Some trust­wor­thy nar­ra­tors from Ham­mad’s com­pan­ions had nar­rat­ed this report, how­ev­er they did not men­tioned the first part. They only men­tion the part where Zayd com­plained to the Prophet(P) and the Rev­e­la­tion of vers­es. [7]

Fourth nar­ra­tion :

It is men­tioned by Ibn Jarir in his Tafsir (22÷13), he said :

Bishr told us : Yazid told us : Sa’eed nar­rat­ed from Qata­da : ?Behold ! Thou didst say to one who had received the grades of Allah ? which is Zayd whom Allah had blessed with Islam. ?and thy favour:?, who was lib­er­at­ed from slav­ery by the Prophet (pbuh). ?Retain thou (in wed­lock) thy wife, and fear Allah.”, the Prophet (pbuh) con­cealed his wish that they shall be divorced. Al-Hasan said : There nev­er was a verse sev­er­er on him than ?But thou didst hide in thy heart that which Allah was about to make man­i­fest ? If Allah?s Prophet (pbuh) was to con­ceal any part of rev­e­la­tion, he would con­ceal this ?thou didst fear the peo­ple, but it is more fit­ting that thou shouldst. Fear Allah?. The Prophet (pbuh) feared what peo­ple might say.

Abdur-Raz­iq nar­rat­ed from Mu’m­mar from Qata­da this sto­ry briefly, he said :

Zayd Ibn Haritha came and said : O Prophet of Allah, Zayn­ab’s lan­guage with me has grown tough, and I wish to divorce her. But the Prophet (pbuh) told him : Fear Allah, and hold on to your wife. At the same time, the Prophet (pbuh) wished that he would divorce her but he also feared what peo­ple might say. [8]

Quta­da is Ibn Du?ama As-Sudousi and one of Imam mem­o­riz­ers, well-known for his Tafsir, what­ev­er he inter­prets accord­ing to his under­stand­ing of verse, is eval­u­at­ed. As for his nar­ra­tions, it is only tak­en when the whole chain of nar­ra­tors is men­tioned, pro­vid­ed direct hear­ing is stat­ed. But in this case, the nar­ra­tion is mur­sal and reporters after him are not men­tioned, so it is con­sid­ered very weak.

Ash-Shu’abi said :

Qata­da was unable to differentiate(between authen­tic and unau­then­tic reports). Abu Umar Ibn Al-‘Alaa said about him : Quta­da and Amr Ibn Shu’aib used to take nar­ra­tions from every­body, noth­ing they con­sid­ered false.[9]

Even though his under­stand­ing and expla­na­tion for the verse is not so detailed as oth­ers, we can still inter­pret them in light of oth­er authen­tic nar­ra­tions by say­ing that the words wish” or love” meant that the Prophet(P) knew that Zayd would divorce her, and he only feared that peo­ple would think of Zayd as his son even after Allah had banned adop­tion, and they might say that he had mar­ried his son’s for­mer wife.

Fifth nar­ra­tion :

Al-Qur­tubi men­tioned it in his Tafsir (14÷190):

Muqatil said : The Prophet (pbuh) wed­ded Zaynab bint Jahsh to Zayd, there­fore she lived with him for a while. One day the Prophet (pbuh) came call­ing on Zayd, and he saw her stand­ing before him. She was white, and one of the finest women in Quraish, there­fore she fell into the Prophet?s heart then he left say­ing : Glo­ry be to Him Who directs the heart. Zaynab heared that and told Zayd about what she had heard. Zayd under­stood, so he went to the Prophet (pbuh) and said : O Prophet of Allah, allow me to divorce her, she has this air of arro­gance, which is greater than what I can endure, and her lan­guage also hurts me ! But the Prophet (pbuh) said : ?Hold on to your wife, and fear Allah in her.? It was also said that wind blew into the fab­ric ? which served as a door — and lift­ed it, which acci­den­tal­ly exposed Zaynab to the Prophet (pbuh) and he saw her, as a result she fell into his heart. Zaynab knew that and told Zayd when he came back. Right then, Zayd decid­ed to divorce her.

This narration?s chain of reporters was nev­er men­tioned all the way to Muqatil. And even if it was authen­tic up to Muqatil, it would be still of no val­ue for he is Muqatil ibn Sulaiman and is not giv­en cred­it by most schol­ars, he was also acused of fab­ri­cat­ing nar­ra­tions and crit­i­cized his Tafsir.[10]

Sixth nar­ra­tion :

Ibn Ishaq said :

Zayd was ill, there­fore the Prophet (pbuh) went to vis­it him. Zaynab ?Zayd?s wife — was at his head nurs­ing him. Just as she left to do some­thing, the Prophet (pbuh) looked at her, low­ered his head and said : Glo­ry be to him ho directs hearts and eyes. Then Zayd said : shall I divorce her for you O Allah?s Mes­sen­ger ? But the Prophet (pbuh) said : NO. Then the verse?Behold ! Thou didst say to one who had received the grades of Allah and thy favour : ?Retain thou (in wed­lock) thy wife, and fear allah ? was revealed.[11]

This report’s chain of nar­ra­tors was not men­tioned and we did not find it in Sir­at Ibn Hisham.

Crit­i­cism of The Text

We have pre­vi­ous­ly dis­cussed the weak­ness of these nar­ra­tions by the unre­li­a­bil­i­ty of their isnads. Now let us look at them in regard to their matns (i.e., texts). Here we attempt dis­cuss the texts of the nar­ra­tion and show the prob­lems inher­ent with­in it.

1st per­spec­tive : The con­tra­dic­tions these nar­ra­tions hold. In some of them it was said that the Prophet(P) came to vis­it Zayd, but Zayd was not home before the Prophet(P) was received by Zaynab. While oth­er nar­ra­tions state that Zayd was ill, there­fore the Prophet(P) went to see him. So, Zayd, Zaynab and the Prophet(P) were all at the same room. How could Zayd be away and ill in bed at the same time ?

2nd per­spec­tive : The nar­ra­tors dif­fer in nar­rat­ing the state and the way in which the Prophet(P) saw Zaynab ; some said he was at the door, oth­ers say she came out, while oth­ers say he saw her when the wind blew the fab­ric barrier.

3rd per­spec­tive : All the nar­ra­tions agree that when the Prophet(P) saw Zaynab, she fell into his heart”. But this love” they speak about came too late (after her mar­riage) which is absurd and ridicu­lous, for Zaynab was born when the Prophet(P) was then 12 years old and she grew up with him as his cousin. Did he not rec­og­nize her beau­ty until after her mar­riage to Zayd ? Until then, the hijab was not an oblig­a­tion ; hence he must have seen her with­out it. And if the alle­ga­tions that he had loved her were true, he would have mar­ried her him­self instead of wed­ded her to Zayd.[12]

4th per­spec­tive : If we make the assump­tion that Prophet(P) fell in love with her after see­ing her as Zayd?s wife, how could one do what the Prophet(P) had done ? whether it was what he said or low­er­ing his head — how could that have indi­cat­ed his assumed love to Zaynab or even Zayd ? Besides, the Prophet(P) pro­hib­it­ed a man from lov­ing or want­i­ng anoth­er man’s wife, would it pos­si­ble for him to go against his own prohibition?[13] Even if we assume that the Prophet(P) showed his assumed attrac­tion acci­den­tal­ly and that he was act­ing spon­ta­neous­ly, how did the nar­ra­tor decide that in his heart he(P) was deter­mined that Zayd must divorce her from his own sake ?

Above all, how would Allah then scold him for hid­ing his love for Zaynab and for hid­ing his wish that she shall be divorced ? Imag­in­ing this is enough to prove the false­hood of these narrations.

5th per­spec­tive : These nar­ra­tions were used to explain the verse and even if there were no oth­er nar­ra­tions, it isn?t prop­er to use these ones for explain­ing Allah?s Book, for they have been proven false by both isnad (chain of reporters) and matn (text). In the same time, there are oth­er nar­ra­tions which are qual­i­fied to be used , nei­ther prob­lem­at­ic nor denounced ; what the Prophet(P) hid was what Allah had informed him regard­ing his mar­riage with Zaynab and what he feared was peo­ple say­ing that he mar­ried his son’s for­mer wife. Strange­ly enough, some com­men­ta­tors for­sake these fault-free authen­tic nar­ra­tions and men­tioned the abnor­mal eccen­tric ones.

Con­clu­sions

After prov­ing these nar­ra­tions faulty and false regard­ing both isnad and matn, of notable inter­est is the posi­tion that some inves­tiga­tive schol­ars had firm­ly stood in oppo­si­tion to these false nar­ra­tions ; some men­tioned and refut­ed them and some ignored them.

After a sum­ma­riz­ing these nar­ra­tions and show­ing the sin­less­ness of the Prophet(P) , Ibn Al-‘Arabi said : All these nar­ra­tions’ chains are not to be considered.”[14]

After men­tion­ing the right expla­na­tion of what the Prophet(P) hid and what he feared, Al Qur­tubi said : This is the best inter­pre­ta­tion of the verse and it is the posi­tion of inves­ti­gat­ing schol­ars and com­men­ta­tors like Az-Zuhri, Al-Qadi Bakr Ibn Al-?Alaa Al-Qushairi, Al-Qadi Abu Bakr Ibn Al-?Arabi and oth­er. As for what has been nar­rat­ed about the Prophet(P) and his love for Zaynab — and some may use the word adore” — this have not come but from a per­son who is unaware of the Prophet?s sin­less­ness or of his rank.”[15]

After men­tion­ing the authen­tic nar­ra­tions, Ibn Kathir said : Abu Hatim and Ibn Jarir men­tioned here some nar­ra­tions from some Salaf that we ignored due to their lack of authen­tic­i­ty. Imam Ahmad also relat­ed a strange nar­ra­tion by Ham­mad Ibn Zayd from Thabit from Anas which we also ignored”.[16]

After men­tion­ing the authen­tic nar­ra­tions, Ibn Hajar not­ed : There are oth­er nar­ra­tions relat­ed by Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hatim and trans­mit­ted by many com­men­ta­tors that should not occu­py our minds”.[17]

A great num­ber of Islam­ic schol­ars nowa­days paid atten­tion to such nar­ra­tions and real­ized their harm­ful effect and impli­ca­tion in regard to the rank of Prophet­hood, so All?enlightened their hearts to expose these intrud­ing nar­ra­tions and awak­en the Islam­ic Thought to con­front any tri­al to under­mine the sta­tus of All?s Messenger(P) or to dis­tort the his­tor­i­cal facts in Islam­ic heritage.

Sheikh Muhammah Rashid Reda said :

Sto­ry­teller has — regard­ing this event — some say­ings that should not be accept­ed and we should keep the Prophet (P) away from such non­sense false­ly attrib­uted to him.[18]

The Prophet’s (P) mar­riage from Zaynab bint Jah­sy was at the mid­dle of Dhul-Qai’­dah, 5 H. when she was 35 years old.[19]

Al-Bukhari relat­ed in his Sahih[20], that Zayd came com­plain­ing of his wife. The Prophet(P) kept say­ing : Fear Allah and hold on to your wife”. Aisha said : If Allah’s Mes­sen­ger were to hide some­thing, he would hide this one. She [Zaynab] used to express pride before the wives of the Prophet (P) and say : Your par­ents wed­ded you and Allah has wed­ded me above Sev­en Heavens.”

And the last of our prayers is : All praise is due to Allah, Almighty, the Lord of the Worlds.

Cite this arti­cle as : Sheikh Abdul­lah Az-Zahabi, The Nar­ra­tives Con­cern­ing The Mar­riage of Zaynab To The Prophet (P),” in Bis­mi­ka Allahu­ma, Sep­tem­ber 20, 2005, last accessed May 27, 2024, https://​bis​mikaal​lahu​ma​.org/​m​u​h​a​m​m​a​d​/​m​a​r​r​i​a​g​e​-​o​f​-​z​a​y​n​a​b​-​b​i​n​t​-​j​a​h​sh/

Ref­er­ences

[2] Cf. At-Tahz­ib (9÷507508)

[3] Cf. At-Tahz­ib (5÷275), Mizan Al-I’ti­dal (2÷448)

[4] Cf. Mizan Al-I’ti­dal (3÷664)

[5] Cf. Al-Tahz­ib (6÷178)

[6] Cf. At-Tahz­ib (10÷381)

[7] Cf. Al-Bukhari, n. 7420. At-Tirmithi, n. 3212. An-Nisa’i, n. 11407

[8] Cf. Fath Al-Bari (8÷524)

[9] Cf. At-Tahz­ib (8÷301305)

[10] Cf. At-Tahz­ib (10÷274275)

[11] Cf. Gen­er­al Ahmad Abdul-Wah­hab, Ta’adud Nisa’ Al-Anbiyaa wa Makanat Al-Mar’ah fi Al-Yahodiyyah wa Al-Masi­hiyyah wa Al-Islam, p. 68.

[12] Cf. Ibn Al-Ara­bi, Ahkam Al-Qur’an (3÷1543)

[13] Cf. Sunan Abu Dawud, n. 5170.

[14] Cf. Ibn Al-‘Arabi, Ahkam Al-Quran (3÷1543)

[15] Cf. Al-Qur­tubi, Al-Jami’a Le Ahkam Al-Quran 14191.

[16] Cf. Ibn Kathir, Tafsir Al-Qur’an Al-‘Azim 3491

[17] Ibn Hajar, Fath Al-Bari 8524

[18] Cf. Rashid Reda, Muham­mad Rasoul Allah, p. 275

[19] Ibn Saad, At-Tabaqat (8÷114)

[20] Sahih, n. 7420Endmark

  1. Cf. Tabari, Jami’-ul-Bayan (22÷11). Ibn Kathir, Tafsir Al-Qur’an Al-‘Azim (3÷489). Al-Bukhari, Sahih, n. 478[]

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