Mar­riage From Peo­ple of the Book” (Ahl al-Kitab)

In Islam, Peo­ple of the Book” are the Jews and the Chris­tians, those who believe in the Books of Allah like Tau­rat and Injil revealed to Prophets Musa(P) and Isa(P) respec­tive­ly. Mar­riage with women of the peo­ple of the Book if [sic] per­mit­ted in Islam accord­ing to the fol­low­ing injunc­tion in the Qur’an :

This day are all things good and pure made law­ful to you. The food of the peo­ple of the Book is law­ful unto you and yours is law­ful unto them. Law­ful unto you in mar­riage are not only chaste women who are believ­ers, but chaste women among the peo­ple of the Book revealed before your time, when you give them their due dow­ers, and desire chasti­ty and not lewd­ness nor secret intrigues“1

There is a con­sen­sus of opin­ion of the Ula­ma of the Ahl al-Sun­nah Wal-Jama’ah that mar­riage with Jews and Chris­t­ian women is per­mit­ted as was the prac­tise of the Com­pan­ions of the Prophet(R) (sahabah) like Uth­man, Tal­ha, Ibn Abbas, Hud­haifah and their fol­low­ers (tabi’un) like Saad bin al-Musayyab, Said bin Jubair, Al-Hasan, Mujahid, Tawus, Akramah and others.

In spite of the prac­tise of the Sahabah, and the Tabi’un, Abdul­lah bin Umar(R) was of the opin­ion that one should not mar­ry a Jew­ish or a Chris­t­ian woman. He used to say : Allah has for­bid­den to mar­ry poly­the­ists, and I do not under­stand any­thing oth­er than greater poly­the­ism when a woman says that her Lord is Isa(P) who is a ser­vant from the ser­vants of Allah.“2

Although there are exam­ples of the pious Sahabah and their fol­low­ers (tabi’un) who mar­ried the Kitabiyyah, one has to take enough cau­tion before con­tract­ing such mar­riages. The Sahabah had exem­plary char­ac­ters and their lives were full of right­eous­ness and piety (taqwa). After mar­ry­ing such women who fol­lowed dif­fer­ent reli­gions and cel­e­brat­ed dif­fer­ent fes­ti­vals, they knew how to keep them under prop­er con­trol so that their chil­dren were not influ­enced by their moth­ers. There is not a sin­gle exam­ple of the Sahabah or the Tabi’un whose chil­dren ever trans­gressed from the lim­its of Allah or changed over to the moth­er’s reli­gion. There­fore, mar­riage with such ladies is per­mit­ted but is gen­er­al­ly dis­cour­aged as Makruh.

I have seen in many such mar­riages the food prob­lems, when the moth­er even at times brings for­bid­den food and chil­dren par­take of it. Like­wise, she would sip wine as part of her reli­gious rit­u­al, and the habit slow­ly finds its way into the house. In some hous­es, I have even seen Christ­mas and Mus­lim fes­ti­vals cel­e­brat­ed simul­ta­ne­ous­ly. In extreme cas­es, boys of such mar­riages bear Mus­lim names, while girls bear the names com­mon among the Chris­tians and Jews.

If there are a good num­ber of Mus­lim women to get mar­ried with, in any giv­en coun­try, it will be con­sid­ered unlaw­ful, accord­ing to the Ijti­had of cer­tain Ula­ma3, to mar­ry the Kitabiyyah women. Since Mus­lim women can­not mar­ry the kitabi men, who will mar­ry them in those cir­cum­stances ? It is bet­ter then that Mus­lim men mar­ry Mus­lim women. The jurists of the four schools of Islam­ic jurispru­dence have dis­cussed the mar­riage with the Kitabiyyah women and giv­en their juris­tic views. Accord­ing to the Hanafi school it is unlaw­ful to mar­ry a Kitabiyyah women if she is in the coun­try which hap­pens to be an abode of war” (Dar al-Harb) because that can open up a door to mis­chief. In such con­di­tions, the chil­dren by that mar­riage will be more inclined towards the reli­gion of their moth­er.4

The Mali­ki school on the oth­er hand, has two opin­ions. The first is that the mar­riage with a Kitabiyyah is com­plete­ly dis­ap­proved (makruh) whether she is a Dhim­mi or one belong­ing to the abode of war. The dis­like for a woman of the lat­ter cat­e­go­ry is greater. The sec­ond opin­ion is that there is no com­plete dis­ap­proval in mar­ry­ing a Kitabiyyah because the Qur’an­ic words has giv­en a tac­it approval. They show dis­ap­proval of such a mar­riage in the abode of Islam because it is not for­bid­den for a Kitabiyyah woman to drink wine or eat the flesh of a pig or going to the church and this affects the reli­gious belief and behav­iour of her chil­dren. It is not essen­tial for a Kitabiyyah that both of her par­ents are ahl al-kitab. Her mar­riage will be valid even if her father is a kitabi and her moth­er is an idol-wor­ship­per. The Shafi’i and the Han­bali schools believe that both her par­ents must be ahl al-kitab in order to have a valid mar­riage. If her father is a kitabi and her moth­er is an idol-wor­ship­per the mar­riage is unlaw­ful even though she has reached the age of puber­ty and has accept­ed the reli­gion of her father.5Endmark

Excerpt from Abdur Rah­man I. Doi, Shari­ah The Islam­ic Law, pp. 134 – 136. TaHa Pub­lish­ers. ISBN 0907461387 1984, reprint 1997. Com­piled by Usman Sheikh
Cite this arti­cle as : Abdur Rah­man I. Doi, Mar­riage From Peo­ple of the Book” (Ahl al-Kitab),” in Bis­mi­ka Allahu­ma, Octo­ber 5, 2005, last accessed Feb­ru­ary 28, 2024, https://​bis​mikaal​lahu​ma​.org/​i​s​l​a​m​/​m​a​r​r​i​a​g​e​-​f​r​o​m​-​p​e​o​p​l​e​-​o​f​-​t​h​e​-​b​o​ok/
  1. Qur’an 5:5[]
  2. cf. Sayyid Sabiq, Fiqh al-Sun­nah. op. cit. 6, pp. 208 – 209[]
  3. cf. Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf, Al-Halal wal Haram fil Islam, 1977 p. 245[]
  4. Kitab al-Fiqh alal Mad­habib al-Arbiah, op. cit., vol. 4, p. 76[]
  5. ibid., p. 77[]

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    In the name of Allah most gra­cious most merciful
    Assalaa­mu alaykum wa rah­mat­u­al­lahi wa barakatuhu

    Per­mis­sion To Mar­ry Free Jew and Christi­nas Women who are believ­ers in uncor­rupt­ed part of sacred books.
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    5:5 This day are (all) things good and pure made law­ful unto you. The food of the Peo­ple of the Book is law­ful unto you and yours is law­ful unto them. (Law­ful unto you in mar­riage) are (not only) chaste women who are believ­ers but chaste women among the Peo­ple of the Book revealed before your time when ye give them their due dow­ers and desire chasti­ty not lewd­ness nor secret intrigues. If any­one rejects faith fruit­less is his work and in the Here­after he will be in the ranks of those who have lost (all spir­i­tu­al good).

    Jew and Chris­t­ian women must have the fol­low­ing beliefs.Belief in one God[exactly as mus­lims believe],Angels,Judgement day,Heaven,Hell,Destiny,Prophets,Halal food [food sac­ri­ficed in the name of God],forbiddence of Alcohol,swine,blood],Believing in uncor­rupt­ed parts of sacred books as divine­ly sent.

    Fol­low­ing are the verse which proves that Some Jews and Chris­tians fol­lowed only the uncor­rupt­ed part of scriptures.

    Invi­ta­tion to accept all scriptures.
     — — — — — — — — — — — —
    5:65 If only the peo­ple of the Book had believed and been right­eous We should indeed have blot­ted out their iniq­ui­ties and admit­ted them to gar­dens of Bliss.

    66 If only they had stood fast by the Law the Gospel and all the rev­e­la­tion that was sent to them from their Lord they would have enjoyed hap­pi­ness from every side.There is from among them a par­ty on the right course ; but many of them fol­low a course that is evil.

    67 O Apos­tle ! pro­claim the (Mes­sage) which hath been sent to thee from thy Lord. If thou didst not thou wouldst not have ful­filled and pro­claimed His mis­sion : and Allah will defend thee from men (who mean mis­chief). For Allah guideth not those who reject faith.

    68 Say : O Peo­ple of the Book ! ye have no ground to stand upon unless ye stand fast by the Law the Gospel and all the rev­e­la­tion that has come to you from your Lord.” It is the rev­e­la­tion that cometh to thee from thy Lord that increaseth in most of them their obsti­nate rebel­lion and blas­phe­my. But sor­row thou not over (these) peo­ple with­out Faith.

    69 Those who believe (in the Qur’an) those who fol­low the Jew­ish (Scrip­tures) and the Sabi­ans and the Chris­tians any who believe in Allah and the Last Day and work right­eous­ness on them shall be no fear nor shall they grieve.

    Believ­ers Jews And Chris­tians who fol­lowed uncor­rupt­ed part of books
     — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — -

    2:62 Those who believe (in the Qur’an) and those who fol­low the Jew­ish (Scrip­tures) and the Chris­tians and the Sabi­ans and who believe in Allah and the last day and work right­eous­ness shall have their reward with their Lord ; on them shall be no fear nor shall they grieve.

    *Note:[Those who fol­low Quran,those who fol­low uncor­rupt­ed part of pre­vi­ous scriptures,an impor­tant point here is that Prophet Muham­mad peace be upon him is proph­e­sised in pre­vi­ous scriptures.If Jews & Chris­tians fol­low those uncor­rupt­ed parts of scrip­tures com­plete­ly then they?ll even­tu­al­ly believe in Quran but if they don?t fol­low pre­vi­ous scrip­tures com­plete­ly while fol­low­ing only the basic beliefs along with it main­tain­ing right­eous­ness then they are peo­ple of the book/ahle-kitab whose women can be mar­ried to mus­lim men.

    *Note:About sabians:Latest research­es have revealed a small rem­nant of a reli­gious com­mu­ni­ty num­ber­ing about 2,000 souls in Low­er Iraq, near Bas­ra. In Ara­bic they are called Sub­bi (plur­al Sub­ba). They are also called Sabi­ans and Naso­raeans ; or Man­daeans, or Chris­tians of St. John. They claim to be Gnos­tics, of Know­ers of the Great Life. They dress in white, and believe in fre­quent immer­sions in water. Their Book Gin­za is in a dialect of Ara­ma­ic. They have the­o­ries of Dark­ness and Light as in Zoroas­tri­an­ism. They use the name Uardan (Jor­dan) for any riv­er. They live in peace and har­mo­ny among their Muslim

    Believ­ing Jews who lat­er accept­ed Prophet­hood of Muham­mad peace be upon him
     — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
    3:113 Not all of them are alike : of the Peo­ple of the book are a por­tion that stand (for the right); they rehearse the signs of Allah all night long and then pros­trate them­selves in adoration.

    114 They believe in Allah and the Last Day ; they enjoin what is right and for­bid what is wrong ; and they (has­ten in emu­la­tion) in (all) good works ; they are in the ranks of the righteous.

    115 Of the good that they do noth­ing will be reject­ed of them ; for Allah knoweth well those that do right.

    116 Those who reject faith nei­ther their pos­ses­sions nor their (numer­ous) prog­e­ny will avail them aught against Allah ; they will be com­pan­ions of the fire dwelling there­in (for ever).

    Believ­ing peo­ple of the book who also believe in Quran again sig­ni­fies they fol­lowed uncor­rupt­ed part of scriptures.
     — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — -
    3:199 And there are cer­tain­ly among the peo­ple of the Book those who believe in Allah in the rev­e­la­tion to you and in the rev­e­la­tion to them bow­ing in humil­i­ty to Allah : they will not sell the signs of Allah for a mis­er­able gain ! for them is a reward with their Lord and Allah is swift in account.

    Believ­ing Chris­tians who lat­er accept Prophet­hood of Muham­mad peace be upon him again sig­ni­fies they fol­lowed uncor­rupt­ed part of scriptures.
     — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — -

    5:82 Strongest among men in enmi­ty to the believ­ers wilt thou find the Jews and Pagans ; and near­est among them in love to the believ­ers wilt thou find those who say : We are Chris­tians:” because amongst these are men devot­ed to learn­ing and men who have renounced the world and they are not arrogant.

    83 And when they lis­ten to the rev­e­la­tion received by the Apos­tle thou wilt see their eyes over­flow­ing with tears for they rec­og­nize the truth : they pray : Our Lord ! we believe ; write us down among the witnesses.

    84 What cause can we have not to believe in Allah and the truth which has come to us see­ing that we long for our Lord to admit us to the com­pa­ny of the righteous?”

    Pro­hib­it­ed To Mar­ry Deviant Jews And Christians.
     — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — -

    Deviant Jews & Chris­tians who became fol­low­ers of cor­rupt books.

    5:13 But because of their breach of their Covenant We cursed them and made their hearts grow hard : they change the words from their (right) places and for­get a good part of the Mes­sage that was sent them nor wilt thou cease to find them bar­ring a few ever bent on (new) deceits : but for­give them and over­look (their mis­deeds): for Allah loveth those who are kind.

    14 From those too who call them­selves Chris­tians We did take a Covenant but they for­got a good part of the Mes­sage that was sent them : so We estranged them with enmi­ty and hatred between the one and the oth­er to the Day of Judg­ment. And soon will Allah show them what it is they have done.

    15 O Peo­ple of the Book ! there hath come to you Our Apos­tle reveal­ing to you much that ye used to hide in the Book and pass­ing over much (that is now unnec­es­sary): There hath come to you from Allah a (new) Light and a per­spic­u­ous Book.

    Deviant Jews who claimed Uzair as son Of Allah
     — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — –
    9:30 The Jews call Uzair a son of Allah and the Chris­tians call Christ the son of Allah. That is a say­ing from their mouths ; (in this) they but imi­tate what the unbe­liev­ers of old used to say. Allah’s curse be on them : how they are delud­ed away from the truth !

    *Note : A sect of them called Uzair a son of Allah.And present day Jews are monothe­ists yet they per­mit Alcohol,believe in puri­ty of Torah com­plete­ly while the book ascribes false­hood to the teach­ing in mat­ter of faith,conduct etc .Excel­lent site to study sim­i­lar­ies between Judaism & christianity

    http://​www​.jews​foral​lah​.com

    Deviant Chris­tians who invent­ed Catholic belief and Trinitarians
     — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — -
    5:17 In blas­phe­my indeed are those that say that Allah is Christ the son of Mary. Say : Who then hath the least pow­er against Allah if His Will were to destroy Christ the son of Mary his moth­er and all every­one that is on the earth ? For to Allah belongeth the domin­ion of the heav­ens and the earth and all that is between. He cre­ateth what He pleaseth. For Allah hath pow­er over all things.”

    *Note:Catholic belief is invent­ed belief.

    The Chris­t­ian Sects
    Sa‘id bin Batriq, the Patri­arch of Alexan­dria and a famous Chris­t­ian schol­ar, men­tioned in the year four hun­dred after the Hijrah, that a Chris­t­ian Coun­cil con­vened dur­ing the reign of Con­stan­tine, who built the city that bears his name. In this Coun­cil, the Chris­tians came up with what they called the Great Trust, which in real­i­ty is the Great Treach­ery. There were more than two thou­sand patri­archs in this Coun­cil, and they were in such dis­ar­ray that they divid­ed into many sects, where some sects had twen­ty, fifty or a hun­dred mem­bers, etc.! When the king saw that there were more than three hun­dred Patri­archs who had the same idea, he agreed with them and adopt­ed their creed. Con­stan­tine who was a deviant philoso­pher — gave his sup­port to this sect for which, as an hon­or, church­es were built and doc­trines were taught to young chil­dren, who were bap­tized on this creed, and books were writ­ten about it. Mean­while, the king oppressed all oth­er sects. Anoth­er Coun­cil pro­duced the sect known as the Jaco­bites, while the Nesto­ri­ans were formed in a third Coun­cil. These three sects agreed that Isa was divine, but dis­put­ed regard­ing the man­ner in which Isa’s divin­i­ty was relat­ed to his human­i­ty ; were they in uni­ty or did Allah incar­nate in Isa ! All three of these sects accuse each oth­er of heresy and, we believe that all three of them are disbelievers.

    5:18 (Both) the Jews and the Chris­tians say : We are sons of Allah and His beloved.” Say : Why then doth He pun­ish you for your sins ? Nay ye are but men of the men He hath cre­at­ed : He for­giveth whom He pleaseth and He pun­isheth whom He pleaseth : and to Allah belongeth the domin­ion of the heav­ens and the earth and all that is between : and unto Him is the final goal (of all).”

    4:171 O peo­ple of the Book ! com­mit no excess­es in your reli­gion : nor say of Allah aught but truth. Christ Jesus the son of Mary was (no more than) an Apos­tle of Allah and His Word which He bestowed on Mary and a Spir­it pro­ceed­ing from Him : so believe in Allah and His Apos­tles. Say not Trin­i­ty”: desist : it will be bet­ter for you : for Allah is One Allah : glo­ry be to him : (for Exalt­ed is He) above hav­ing a son. To Him belong all things in the heav­ens and on earth. And enough is Allah as a Dis­pos­er of affairs.

    *Note:1‑Mentioned in this verse (a)Allah (b)Jesus (c)Mary (d)His word (e)Spirit.At the time of prophet Muham­mad peace be upon him Chris­t­ian sect used to believe in trinity.And trin­i­ty com­prised of Allah,mary& jesus.But now a days they have changed their beliefs​.Today trin­i­ty to them means Allah,jesus & Spirit.

    *Note:2‑Excerpts from tafsir ibn Kathir-

    (a) (Al-Masih Isa, son of Maryam, was (no more than) a Mes­sen­ger of Allah and His Word, which He bestowed on Maryam and a spir­it from [cre­at­ed by] Him;) Isa is only one of Allah’s ser­vants and one of His crea­tures. Allah said to him, Be’, and he was, and He sent him as a Mes­sen­ger. Isa was a word from Allah that He bestowed on Maryam, mean­ing He cre­at­ed him with the word Be’ that He sent with Jib­ril to Maryam. Jib­ril blew the life of Isa into Maryam by Allah’s leave, and Isa came to exis­tence as a result. This inci­dent was in place of the nor­mal con­cep­tion between man and woman that results in chil­dren. This is why Isa was a word and a Ruh (spir­it) cre­at­ed by Allah, as he had no father to con­ceive him. Rather, he came to exis­tence through the word that Allah uttered, Be,’ and he was, through the life that Allah sent with Jibril.

    (b) (And has sub­ject­ed to you all that is in the heav­ens and all that is in the earth ; it is all from Him.) mean­ing, from His cre­ation. from Him’ does not mean that it is a part of Him, as the Chris­tians claim, may Allah’s con­tin­ued curs­es be upon them. Say­ing that some­thing is from Allah, such as the spir­it of Allah, the she-camel of Allah or the House of Allah, is meant to hon­or such items. Allah said,

    5:73 They do blas­pheme who say : Allah is one of three in a Trin­i­ty : for there is no god except One Allah. If they desist not from their word (of blas­phe­my) ver­i­ly a griev­ous penal­ty will befall the blas­phe­mers among them.

    [Chris­tians who are protes­tants can?t be mar­ried to muslims]

    *Note:3‑Actually trin­i­ty of present day is qui­et an invention

    Ter­tul­lian, a lawyer and pres­byter of the third cen­tu­ry Church in Carthage, was the first to use the word Trin­i­ty” when he put forth the the­o­ry that the Son and the Spir­it par­tic­i­pate in the being of God, but all are of one being of sub­stance with the Father.
    FORMAL DOCTRINE IS DRAWN UP
    When con­tro­ver­sy over the mat­ter of the Trin­i­ty blew up in 318 between two church men from Alexan­dria — Arius, the dea­con, and Alexan­der, his bish­op — Emper­or Con­stan­tine stepped into the fray. Although Chris­t­ian dog­ma was a com­plete mys­tery to him, he did real­ize that a uni­fied church was nec­es­sary for a strong king­dom. When nego­ti­a­tion failed to set­tle the dis­pute, Con­stan­tine called for the first ecu­meni­cal coun­cil in Church his­to­ry in order to set­tle the mat­ter once and for all. Six weeks after the 300 bish­ops first gath­ered at Nicea in 325, the doc­trine of the Trin­i­ty was ham­mered out. The God of the Chris­tians was now seen as hav­ing three essences, or natures, in the form of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.

    Deviant Jews And christians
     — — — — — — — — — -
    2 : 135 They say : Become Jews or Chris­tians if ye would be guid­ed (to sal­va­tion).” Say thou : Nay ! (I would rather) the reli­gion of Abra­ham the true and he joined not gods with Allah.”

    2:113 The Jews say : The Chris­tians have naught (to stand) upon”; and the Chris­tians say : The Jews have naught (to stand) upon.” Yet they (pro­fess to) study the (same) Book. Like unto their word is what those say who know not but Allah will judge between them in their quar­rel on the Day of Judgment.

    2 : 120 Nev­er will the Jews or the Chris­tians be sat­is­fied with thee unless thou fol­low their form of reli­gion. Say : The guid­ance of Allah that is the (only) guid­ance.” Wert thou to fol­low their desires after the knowl­edge which hath reached thee then wouldst thou find nei­ther pro­tec­tor nor helper against Allah.

    3:85 If any­one desires a reli­gion oth­er than Islam (sub­mis­sion to Allah) nev­er will it be accept­ed of him ; and in the Here­after he will be in the ranks of those who have lost (all spir­i­tu­al good).

    Final­ly Jews and chris­tians will be judged by the laws of Quran[Capital laws to inter­est based trans­ac­tions etc]

    Jizya/​protection tax
     — — — — — — –
    9:29 Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day nor hold that for­bid­den which hath been for­bid­den by Allah and His apos­tle nor acknowl­edge the reli­gion of truth (even if they are) of the Peo­ple of the Book until they pay the Jizya with will­ing sub­mis­sion and feel them­selves subdued.

    *Note:[These are the oppres­sors who them­selves dis­be­lieved & fur­ther oppressed the believ­ers for their faith.They?re told to pay Jizya it is a pro­tec­tion tax,paid by ahle-kitab/peo­ple of the book & non-mus­lims in general[idolators,deviant christiand/​jews] liv­ing with free­dom under Islam­ic law,they are called Dhmmi?s]

    The sun­na is that there is no jizya due from women or chil­dren of peo­ple of the Book, and that jizya is only tak­en from men who have reached puberty.

    This is because jizya is only imposed on them on con­di­tions, which they have agreed on, name­ly that they will remain in their own coun­tries, and that war will be waged for them on any ene­my of theirs.

    Per­mit­ted to mar­ry free women from peo­ple of the book
     — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —
    Al-Muwat­ta Hadith Hadith 28.38a

    Pro­hi­bi­tion against Mar­ry­ing Slave-Girls of the Peo­ple of the Book

    Malik said, It is not halal to mar­ry a chris­t­ian or jew­ish slave-girl because Allah the Blessed, the Exalt­ed, said in His Book, Believ­ing women who are muh­sanat and women of those who were giv­en the Book before you who are muh­sanat’, (sura 5 ayat 6) and they are free women from the Chris­tians and Jews. Allah, the Blessed, the Exalt­ed, said in His Book, If you are not afflu­ent enough to mar­ry believ­ing women who are muh­sanat, take believ­ing slave-girls whom your right hands own.’ ” (Sura 4 ayat 24)Malik said, In our opin­ion, Allah made mar­riage to believ­ing slave-girls halal, and He did not make halal mar­riage to chris­t­ian and jew­ish slave-girls from the Peo­ple of the Book.“Malik said, The chris­t­ian and jew­ish slave-girl are halal for their mas­ter by right of pos­ses­sion, but inter­course with a magian slave-girl is not halal by the right of possession.”

    Al-Muwat­ta Hadith Hadith 28.40
    Muhsanat
    Yahya relat­ed to me from Malik from Ibn Shi­hab, and he had heard from al-Qasim ibn Muham­mad that they said, When a free man mar­ries a slave-girl and con­sum­mates the mar­riage, she makes him muhsan.“Malik said, All (of the peo­ple of knowl­edge) I have seen said that a slave-girl makes a free man muh­san when he mar­ries her and con­sum­mates the marriage.“Malik said, A slave makes a free woman muh­sana when he con­sum­mates a mar­riage with her and a free woman only makes a slave muh­san when he is freed and he is her hus­band and has had sex­u­al rela­tions with her after he has been set free. If he parts from her before he is free, he is not a muh­san unless he mar­ries her after hav­ing been set free and he con­sum­mates the marriage.“Malik said, When a slave-girl is mar­ried to a free man and then he sep­a­rates from her before she is set free, his mar­riage to her does not make her muh­sana. She is not muh­sana until she has mar­ried after she has been set free and she has had inter­course with her hus­band. That gives her ihsan. If she is the wife of a free­man and then she is set free while she is his wife before he sep­a­rates from her, the man makes her muh­sana if he has inter­course with her after she has been set free.“Malik said, The chris­t­ian and jew­ish free women and the mus­lim slave-girl all make a mus­lim free man muh­san when he mar­ries one of them and has inter­course with her.”

    *Muh­sanat means free & mar­ried male or female.

    Sahih Al-Bukhari Hadith­Ha­dith 7.209 Nar­rat­ed byNafi
    When­ev­er Ibn Umar was asked about mar­ry­ing a Chris­t­ian lady or a Jew­ess, he would say : Allah has made it unlaw­ful for the believ­ers to mar­ry ladies who ascribe part­ners in wor­ship to Allah, and I do not know of a greater thing, as regards to ascrib­ing part­ners in wor­ship, etc. to Allah, than that a lady should say that Jesus is her Lord

    Al-Tir­mid­hi Hadith­Ha­dith 3321 Nar­rat­ed byAb­dul­lah ibn Amr ibn al-‘As
    The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, There are four types of women with whom there can be no curs­ing : a Chris­t­ian woman mar­ried to a Mus­lim, a Jew­ess mar­ried to a Mus­lim, a free woman mar­ried to a slave, and a slave woman mar­ried to a freeman.”
    Ibn Majah trans­mit­ted it.

    Sahih Al-Bukhari Hadith­Ha­dith 7.209 Nar­rat­ed byNafi
    When­ev­er Ibn Umar was asked about mar­ry­ing a Chris­t­ian lady or a Jew­ess, he would say : Allah has made it unlaw­ful for the believ­ers to mar­ry ladies who ascribe part­ners in wor­ship to Allah, and I do not know of a greater thing, as regards to ascrib­ing part­ners in wor­ship, etc. to Allah, than that a lady should say that Jesus is her Lord

    Allah knows best !

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